The basic forms of meditation, that are usually taught to start you off in meditation practice, are mindfulness of breathing (anapanasati), developing lovingkindness (metta-bhavana), and mindfulness or 'just sitting' (sati). At this level they are known as shamatha practices.
Shamatha means 'calm' and has to do with integrating the physical and emotional energies. As you get more familiar with these methods, they are combined with elements of reflection on the nature of reality known as vipashyana. Vipashyana means 'seeing' and refers to seeing through habitual ways of perceiving your experience.
click on links for detailed instructions on each practice
• Mindfulness of Breathing (anapanasati)
• Metta Bhavana (developing Loving Kindness)
• Just Sitting (Sati) and walking meditation